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Complete Motivation

Complete MotivationMany believe ‘leaders are born and not made’. Birth traits may provide a head start but many traits can be acquired.
The first step is to recognise the required traits. The second step is to truly evaluate your own positives and negatives.
The final step is to modify your own behaviour and implement what you learn.
DefinitionA dictionary definition would be: ‘desire to do; interest or drive’.
The science of the behaviour of people is commonly called psychology.
A dictionary definition of psychology is: ‘the scientific study of all forms of human and animal behaviour’.
DelegationMotivation will use leadership techniques of delegation.
Leadership is all about values, a vision and trying to achieve it with goals and strategic plans.
How far do you delegate? How far do you want to delegate?
Myers-BriggsThere have been many ‘tests’ to help people understand motivation. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® (MBTI) is one.
It was developed by Isabel Briggs Myers, and her mother, Katharine Briggs in the 1940’s.
It is taken by more than 2 million people each year.
FIRO-BFIRO-B stands for: Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation – Behaviour.
It was developed in the 1950’s as tool for personal understanding as a help in relations with others and teams.
OPQOPQ stands for: Occupational Personality Questionnaire.
A questionnaire developed in England.
It can be thought of as too complex producing 30 work behaviour scales from 248 questions.
PathologyPersonality: Sum of behavioural and mental characteristics by which an individual is recognised as being unique.
Pathology: The branch of medicine concerned with the cause, origin, and nature of disease.
Behaviours in older life are not a disease but ‘pathology’ represents the underlying possible causes of behaviours.
PerformanceTo improve performance things will need to change and you must be the catalyst.
However change can’t be just for the short term you must be committed.
If you want to improve performance then you must know what level of performance you are expecting.
EmpowermentGetting people to rely on themselves is what good leadership is all about.
If do this people will perform at a higher level and realise that taking on responsibility is the way to personal success.
A strong leader is secure. He has no fear for his position as he is a valuable asset.
Improving relationsMany of your team may have a very narrow view on what goes on.
Their experiences may only be within the team or your department.
If you can broaden their contacts you will help with their experiences.
Identifying people needsThere are many ways to find out peoples needs, for example:
Job watching, Discussion groups, Skills and talents, Questionnaires, Why did they leave? Data assessment
GeneralSome people confuse motivation with inspiration.
Motivation: The desire to do, interest or drive.
Inspiration: Stimulation or arousal of the mind to special or unusual activity or creativity.
Frederick HerzbergFrederick Herzberg was born in Lynn, Massachusetts on April 18, 1923 and died on January 18, 2000 in Salt Lake City.
He put forward the idea that certain factors in the workplace cause job satisfaction, while others lead to dissatisfaction.
He became known as ‘The Father of Job Enrichment’ and the originator of the ‘Motivation-Hygiene Theory’.
Douglas McGregorDouglas McGregor, a social psychologist, developed his theory X and theory Y of human motivation in the 1960s.
They describe two very different attitudes toward workforce motivation.
McGregor felt that companies followed either one or the other approach.
Abraham MaslowMaslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology that Abraham Maslow proposed in 1943.
His theory contends that as humans meet 'basic needs', they seek to satisfy successively 'higher needs'.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is often depicted as a pyramid consisting of five levels.
Key problemsSome of the key areas covered are:
Money, Perks, The boss, Integrity, Goals, Recognition, Feedback and Monkeys.
PeopleIt has been said that if you influence people to follow then you will be a leader - but with certain limitations.
If you can influence people to become leaders, in their turn, then you will become a leader without limitations.
Integrity and trustThe aim of any manager is to develop the latent ability of people.
One of the key elements to motivation is a sense of integrity and trust on the part of the manager.
When an individual wants to perform at a high level he or she is driven by the satisfaction of a personal need.
New may not be goodToday’s world is fast paced with computers going out of date in less than 12 months, new technology solutions
materialising in communication and businesses equally wanting to move forward at a rapid pace.
This is exacerbated by a feeling of being ‘left behind’ if you don’t innovate in some way.
Common senseMost managers would probably say that they know how to handle situations based upon their experience.
This often comes over as ‘it is just common sense’.
Said in a derogatory manner, suggests this person does not have their intelligence to apply this ‘common sense’.
Giving orders“If people only did what I told them the world would be a lot simpler.”
Many of us will have heard similar phrases over and over again.
You could (very) loosely argue that, for some managers, this is their whole basis for setting objectives
ConsequencesWhen you go to work or do anything, at the end of the day, you will have an opinion on how everything went.
Will you want to carry on the next day?
Perhaps, without even realising it, you will assess the variety of ‘consequences’ you gained during the day.
Model behaviourIt doesn’t matter that you may think someone else’s behaviour is out of the ordinary, to them it is perfectly valid.
What you are trying to ascertain is what influences a particular behaviour.
Remember that the antecedent sets up the circumstances for some sort of behaviour.
Negative reinforcementThe only way to modify behaviour for the better is through either positive or negative reinforcement.
Many managers will say they use positive reinforcement; so this should dominate management thinking.
The method used for improving motivation will influence the working environment.
Positive reinforcementWhen some one carries out a behaviour they have a capacity for a particular level of performance.
In the main, most people work below their maximum performance, they do only what is necessary.
They are aware that they can produce extra effort for a task. This extra effort is known as ‘discretionary effort’.
Decreasing behaviourIf you encourage behaviour the consequence must be reinforcement.
The only way to decrease or stop a behaviour is to use punishment or penalty(consequences).
You want to discourage poor performance. However, it is very easy to discourage good performance without realising it.
BehaviourThe general approach for most managers is ‘if it ain’t broke don’t fix it’.
This seems a great policy as it requires inaction and is justified by having more time for those doing a poor job.
What if you have someone who works great and is a high performer?
Measuring performanceWhen you try to measure performance people immediately think that you have identified a problem and that it is them.
The result of this is that there is resistance to behaviour and results measurement.
The final result seems inevitable in many people’s minds that a fault will be identified and they will get the blame.
Counting and judgementOgden Lindsley identified 12 patterns of correct and incorrect performance.
Two of them are more common called ‘jaws’ and ‘crossover jaws’.
Others are: Climb, Take-Off, Uphill, Dive, Aim, Mid-Level, Surface, Downhill, Landing and Snow Plough.
Feedback 1No one likes to be criticised and because of this we feel reluctant to give others negative feedback.
Motivation drops easily here. Prior to any feedback it is best to discuss how feedback will work with individuals.
Once you get input from others the system will work a little more smoothly.
Simple approachIn the early 1960’s Ogden Lindsley developed a four step procedure for performance management that involved:
Pinpointing, Recording, Consequate and Evaluation.
Pinpointing (behaviour – results orientated) is defining accurate behaviours and results for measurement.
Goal settingManagers have been setting goals for years.
To suggest that these are worthless would send some managers into early retirement.
The truth is they are not worthless but can be severely devalued by the way managers use them.
QualityMany will have heard of the eternal triangle of Cost, time and Quality.
Improving performance usually means change.
For any change an individual wants to realise some personal benefit or motivation will wane and the initiative will fail.
De-motivatorsThere are hundreds of ways for the destruction of motivation.
It will be up to you to recognise them and either remove them or alleviate their impact.
There will always be negative things in life. Some you may be able to legislate for with contingency planning.
DownsizingFor many managers the need to make improvements means cutting costs and this often ends up in cutting jobs.
For share holders it gives the impression that rapid and decisive action has been taken.
This is designed to give short term gains which, hopefully, will have a long term affect on company profitability.
Reward systemsThink of any reward system that you know and the chances are there will be at least one winner of the award.
This means that there will be many losers by definition.
This is the problem of many reward systems; they highlight a winner and condemn many to the loser position.
AppraisalsAppraisals may be given other names, for example, a performance and development review.
Appraisals are often a byword for fear and apprehension both for the giver and the receiver.
There are so many negative aspects to the appraisal it's amazing they still exist.
HierarchyPerformance management starts at the top.
If senior managers are unable to grasp its basic principles and put some sort of strategy in place
then their organisations are likely to suffer in the long term. Motivation will eventually drop.
Pace of learningAs technology changes the need for, and the processing of, more information is always on the increase.
No company can exist now without the use of computer technology in some format.
Either as computer networks or at the heart of machinery.
CreativityDefinition: ‘Characterised by originality of thought or inventiveness; having or showing imagination’.
People have often been characterised into specific groups.
In simple terms logical thinkers have been labelled as ‘monochronic’ and creative thinkers as ‘polychronic’.
People issuesThe biggest problem that managers have with people is meeting them for some form of appraisal or assessment.
The formal year end appraisal or the initial interview are usually viewed with some trepidation.
Managers are often told exactly what they should be doing in these situations but not exactly how to do it.
Limited by attitudeThe main purpose of a manager is to achieve results through the efforts of his or her staff.
There are often limited options open to managers who can not get the best out of their staff.
Having tried methods to improve behaviour, many managers are left with only one option. Replace the member of staff.
LabellingGeorge Alexander Kelly suggested people only require a motive for action if you believe they are inert, i.e. not moving.
If, on the other hand, you believe that people are constantly on the move and active then no motive is required.
During his work he noticed that people were often labelled in a particular manner, for example, being lazy.
CommunicationA common phrase is ‘Don’t shoot the messenger’. The messenger is often the manager trying to get things done.
He or she gives an instruction and it doesn’t get carried out.
The fault must be with the individual receiving the request.
Behaviour failureWe know that managers will treat people and machines completely differently.
If a machine goes awry the exact problem is ascertained and a solution is put into place.
There are obvious costs in not getting the repairs completed.
Feedback 2There are many types of positive reinforcement but if you had to choose only one then pick feedback.
This is by far the most important aspect of reinforcing behaviour.
A high percentage of behavioural failure is down to a lack of feedback on performance.
Coaching stepsXA coach is someone who can provide experienced guidance, knowledge and understanding to improve the level of
performance and help in the motivation of an individual. If you approach performance management in a logical
stepwise procedure you should be able to improve problem behaviour with the minimum of effort.
Stepwise discussionSolving behavioural problems needs a methodical approach.
Jumping around with theories, trying out random solutions and seeing what happens is unlikely to work
and will only create confusion and frustration and may lead to lowering motivation.
TeamsAn individual carries out behaviours but an individual only has a finite amount of skills and time.
A team can have greater depths of skills and experiences and by carrying out tasks in parallel can utilise time better.
A well run team can be greater than the sum of its parts.
Generating ideasIt is easy to dismiss ideas out of hand as being impractical for many reasons.
The aim is to accept ideas for what they are and then explore their possibilities.
As a team leader don’t pass judgement yourself without seeking input from the team.
Set backsMany will attack their goals in a professional manner with good planning leading to the generation of schedules.
Within this framework people will try to consider everything that may go wrong and provide contingencies.
However, it is common for things to happen that are not planned.
MentorsReferred to as ‘wise advisor’ in 1750 and derives from the Greek ‘Mentor’, a character in the "Odyssey,“.
This approach uses the experience of an individual to teach the novice.
This approach is slightly more detached than coaching.
Self motivationNever accept mediocrity from yourself.
Believe in your own worth and revel in the help you are able to give others.
If you have no enthusiasm to get on with things yourself you will find it difficult to motivate others.
The stageMotivation concerns trying to get individuals to reach their maximum potential by carrying out appropriate behaviours.
Ideally, you would like people to be extremely proactive always striving to do their best.
This is often not the case and that is when a variety of techniques are used in an attempt to improve the situation.
ValuesThe best leaders will exhibit the values of honesty and humility in their personal and professional lives.
People look to their leaders to set an example.
Without honesty the leader will not engender trust and the followers will disappear.
Insight and intuitionIf you perform at the highest levels then it is almost certain that at some time
you will be using intuition, foresight and insight.
These skills are quite nebulous in trying to define what they are and how you can improve your use of them.
Personal insightA simple tool to think about how you see your self and others see you is the JoHari window.
Named after the first names of its inventors, American psychologists Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham,
is one of the most useful models describing the process of human interaction.
InspirationWithout direction people get frustrated. Good leaders provide direction and hence motivation.
They provide direction by giving inspiration to reach particular goals.
You can look for inspiration from others and provide it yourself.
InfluenceWhen we speak about the motivation of others this is not strictly true.
When we influence others we are trying to encourage behaviour by appealing to what already motivates the individual.
An individual will analyse the situation and decide if they want to do the behaviour based upon the influence you exert.
Make it funFun is great to have. As a manager you can look to instil fun in the way people do things
and within the environment in which people work.
As an individual the aim is to try to find, from within yourself, the fun in the work you do.
Human capacityIt goes without saying that it is not an easy matter to estimate the speed and storage capacity of the human brain.
If you pose the question “How fast is the human brain?” on Google Search you will get some ideas of the latest
information in this area. Human beings are capable of great things.
SummaryThis section covers the following topics: Sport and work, Meeting people,
Do as you say, Positive reinforcement, Behavioural change, Values and behaviour and Role models.

The following sections focus on particular aspects of motivation and are covered in extra depth.

Coaching steps
Simple approachA coach is someone who can provide experienced guidance, knowledge and understanding to improve the level of
performance and help in the motivation of an individual. If you approach performance management in a logical
stepwise procedure you should be able to improve problem behaviour with the minimum of effort.
What do I need to do?We need to clarify the result required. We must be clear on the behaviours needed to achieve these results.
There are key elements to this clarification: What are the exact behaviours needed?
What is the time frame for starting and completing the task? What is the specification of the finished article?
PrioritisingIt is rare for anyone to be involved purely in one job that has only one behaviour attached to it.
This being the case, a worker is likely to prioritise the actions even if he has been given no guidance in this area.
Some tasks have to be carried out one after the other, so have a natural pecking order.
GeneralCoaching may range from a person using their experience to directly influence the thinking and skills of the individual,
to another who uses a more enabling technique, affording increased independence to the individual.
There are those in between looking for an equal input from both parties thus generating a creative link.
GeneralAn individual carries out behaviours but an individual only has a finite amount of skills and time.
A team can have greater depths of skills and experiences and by carrying out tasks in parallel can utilise time better.
A well run team can be greater than the sum of its parts.
AdvantageThere is a synergy about teams that you can not get from individuals alone.
When everyone is looking for any advantage for success the use of teams may be the answer.
A good team is a lot more than just a group of people getting together to solve a problem.
Other membersThere is a small exercise that the team can do to gauge their own feelings of how much team work actually exists.
Ask the group to arrange themselves within the room, in any manner they feel represents the team dynamics.
This is best done in silence. When it is complete take a photograph of the group.
ComplainingTelling people that you are unhappy about a behaviour which impacts on yourself is not easy.
Clearly, you are trying to do this in constructive manner. Be accurate with your complaint.
the individual then knows exactly what you mean but also knows what they can do about it.
Taking risksHow good is your team?
Will it make a difference either to the team members or the organisation or to other parties?
Moving a team to exceptional performance may need a move from routine behaviour to one of more risk taking.
CelebrationThis is a great area where team input is very enthusiastic.
Decide on the milestones you wish to celebrate but don’t limit celebrations just to these.
You can celebrate team achievement and personal achievement.
LeadershipTeam work can be harder to appreciate for some. Firstly, you must work with others and not independently.
Secondly, the process can appear to be slower, for example decision making.
The only reason for using team work is if the whole is more efficient than the sum of its parts.
Self motivation
Being proactiveNever accept mediocrity from yourself.
Believe in your own worth and revel in the help you are able to give others.
If you have no enthusiasm to get on with things yourself you will find it difficult to motivate others.
FearsIt’s all very well saying one person should do this and another do that but every person is different.
For many people to change what they do might involve moving out of their comfort zone. When people try to do this they will often have fears. These fears manifest themselves in a few common ways.
Small is goodIf you focus on the smaller items and complete them, then many of the larger goals will be successful.
That is if you break down tasks into smaller steps it is easier to succeed in each which then build to a larger target.
It is good to break down tasks into smaller steps which allow a greater opportunity for positive reinforcement.
Luck and practiceMany believe that luck will play a good part in their behaviour for good or bad.
If fortune doesn’t seem to favour them they may show little motivation for a task.
Also discussed: Mascots, Visualisation, Self talk and affirmation and Fiction and fact.
HypnosisThis is something that anyone may wish to try.
Perhaps using a trigger word that may help to boost performance when it is needed most.
Other areas covered are: Rituals, Relaxation and Create a challenge.
No regretsWhat happens as you get near to the end of your life?
You may consider events throughout your life and think about how you would have ‘done this and that’ differently.
Also covered: Focus, Relativity, Simplicity, Reflection, Personalise and Break it down
The carCars are used as an example as we spend a lot of time in them going from A to B which is not utilised wisely.
Really, the same principles apply for whenever you have a few minutes to spare.
Other areas covered are: Planning, Don’t say can’t and Look for fun.
Odd one outIf you can relate to others in the way you would like them to relate to you it will improve confidence.
It’s easy to have negative thoughts for a person that appears different. It’s good to see things from their perspective.
Also discussed: Listening skills, Choice, Habits, Use your filter and Help others.
Problems are goodEveryone tries to eliminate problems; without them you will miss an opportunity to stretch yourself and learn.
No problems means no solutions and that is a missed chance to be creative.
In general people fear problems. They get in the way of what we want to achieve.
Optimism vs pessimismIf your natural view on life is pessimistic you can alter this by gradually building up optimistic opinions.
This needs to be done slowly and consistently via small steps. Eventually, you may be surprised at your results.
The human brain has many thousands of thoughts each day so trying to change dominant habits may take a little time.
Make a listLists have many uses and for some people they can provide a feeling both of historical successes and future actions.
For example, you might keep a list of every book and poem that you have ever read with as much detail as you wish.
This can give you a great sense of achievement plus a strong indication of areas you still want to explore.
Problem solvingWhen action has been decided there are a few simple steps that can help manage the process.
A couple are: Always make sure that one person only is accountable for the action.
Who will be the responsible person or persons who will carry out the task?

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Motivation gurus

Three famous people in this area are Frederick Herzberg, Douglas McGregor and Abraham Maslow.

Frederick Herzberg was known as ‘The Father of Job Enrichment’ and the originator of the ‘Motivation-Hygiene Theory’.

During his research, he established that particular factors often caused a worker to feel unsatisfied with his or her job.
These factors seemed directly related to the person's environment, for example, the physical surroundings, other personnel such as supervisors and even the company itself.
He called this his ‘Hygiene Theory’.

Douglas McGregor developed his theory X and theory Y of human motivation.

Theory X assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work if they can.

Theory Y assumes employees are ambitious, self-motivated, anxious to accept greater responsibility, and exercise self-control and self-direction.

Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs was proposed in 1943.

The hierarchy of needs is often depicted as a pyramid consisting of five levels.

Goal setting

This area describes some potential limitations of setting goals, stretch goals and the the use of antecedents and reinforcements.

Breaking down goals makes them easier to achieve.

Other aspects of goal setting are covered: The plan, Milestones, S.M.A.R.T. targets, What goals?, What tasks?, Super goal and Goal listing.


Creativity behaviour can be an important part of motivation.

How will positive and negative reinforcement encourage or reduce creative behaviour?

Trying to promote creativity often means change which needs to be managed.

How do you maximise creativity?

Creative thinking will be enhanced by making individuals feel important and producing the right mindset.


This section indicates some simple steps that will help when coaching individuals.

Many areas are covered, for example, using feedback and setting criteria.

What you need to do and why, internal and external problems and tackling entrenched ideas.

It is important to consider prioritisation as well as behaviour reinforcement.

In addition, personal attributes are highlighted along with other aspects.


Working with teams and dealing with teams is extremely important.

In part it covers the views of Bruce Tuckman, Morgan Scott-Peck and Meridith Belbin.

The aim is to maximise team performance and at the same time avoid some of the pitfalls.

Some aspects of leadership are discussed.

Self motivation

Without self motivation you will find it very hard to motivate others.

Some of the techniques described here will help you improve your motivation of others.

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