Both Phil Crosby and William Deming highlighted 14 points that were required to bring about quality improvement.
In the latter case, Deming’s work in Japan had a profound affect on their industry.
These points were:
A corporate policy on quality needs to be issued clarifying the commitment, for example, "We will deliver defect-free products and services to our clients“.
Quality becomes the first agenda item at regular management status meetings.
Senior management needs to communicate clearly the quality message to the team.
Develop a quality improvement team to guide the process and help it succeed.
Crosby states, "The team has to understand we are after change in the attitudes and practices of the supervision of the company, not of the troops. Their turn will come."
Measures are essential if the team and organization are to know how they are doing and where corrective action is required.
Measures must be developed.
Development of a cost of quality measurement is essential to the process.
It is critical that the cost of quality be developed in a formal and objective way to service as a stimulus for the quality improvement process.
Communication that creates awareness of what is important and what is happening must take place.
Internal methods must be utilized and improved or developed.
A consistent message must be presented.
Crosby feels that the use of slogans can be an effective way to remind people of the quality improvement process.
One critical component is making sure employees are aware of management's commitment.
The purpose of this step is to identify and eliminate problems forever.
A corrective action system needs to be based on analysis that identifies the root cause of the problem and how it can be eliminated.
Plan to celebrate quality achievements and the quality management process.
The key is in understanding when to take this step.
Crosby notes there is probably no need to plan the day sooner than a year and a half into the process.
Once management understands the four absolutes of quality and is practicing them, it is time to educate all of the employees in the company.
Rather than the training department putting the program together and delivering it, Crosby recommends the use of a special 30 hour quality training program that provides a standard message and could be used by anyone trained on the package.
The purpose of this event is to get management to make their commitment to quality in a public way so they will abide by it.
Management must show they are serious about quality.
Goal setting is initiated immediately after measurement.
Goals should be chosen by the group and posted for everyone to see.
Crosby describes this step as, "Asking people to state the problem they have so that something can be done about it."
This is not the time for suggestions, but a time to identify the problems and their causes.
The development of a recognition program for employees and executives is an important part of the quality improvement process.
The intent of the quality council is to bring quality experts in the organization together to learn from one another and support the process.
The current quality team or a new quality team starts the process over again to provide for ongoing improvement.
Here only ‘recognition’ considers reinforcement of the individual towards improved performance and motivation.
These tend to be positive reinforcement but in the future and uncertain (see Consequence – part 1).
In order to gain superior improvement the positive reinforcement needs to be more immediate, certain and frequent.
Under point 7. Zero Defects planning it is noted that celebrations might not come to fruition for 12 to 18 months.
There can be a lot of uncertainty in that time.
Also the 14 points of William Deming are given below in title only with additional detail below each.
Replace short-term reaction with long-term planning.
This is toward improvement of product and service, with the aim to become competitive and to stay in business, and to provide jobs.
You will need to focus and pinpoint the correct behaviours for quality improvement and reinforce only these.
The implication is that management should actually adopt his philosophy, rather than merely expect the workforce to do so.
This is similar to the first of Crosby showing management commitment.
A plan is needed to implement performance management that ensures positive reinforcement is used consistently such that it maintains good behaviours.
If variation is reduced, there is no need to inspect manufactured items for defects, because there won't be any. Again, good reinforcement will ensure a high performance level is maintained.
Multiple suppliers mean variation between feed stocks.
Cost should not be the driving force.
Those suppliers that can guarantee good quality with low variance should be sought.
Constantly strive to reduce variation.
Ensure this by keeping to good positive reinforcement systems.
If people are inadequately trained, they will not all work the same way, and this will introduce variation.
Keep an eye on skill levels and courses attended.
Deming makes a distinction between leadership and mere supervision. The latter is quota- and target-based.
Reflect your desire for good leadership (see The Complete Leadership package) in your reinforcement system and promotion strategies.
Deming sees management by fear as counter- productive in the long term, because it prevents workers from acting in the organisation's best interests. That is use positive reinforcement to create good behaviours and don’t use negative reinforcement.
Another idea central to Total Quality Management (TQM) is the concept of the 'internal customer', that each department serves not the management, but the other departments that use its outputs.
Where team work is necessary encourage it by appropriate reinforcement.
Make sure the whole team is supported and that internal competition does not result.
Another central TQM idea is that it's not people who make most mistakes - it's the process they are working within.
Harassing the workforce without improving the processes they use is counter-productive.
Deming saw production targets as encouraging the delivery of poor-quality goods. Poor use of goals will lower attainment if there is not suitable opportunity for positive reinforcement.
People will reach their goals and stop.
Many of the other problems outlined reduce worker satisfaction.
Implement recognition of good behaviours and results as soon as they occur.
Positively reinforce regularly. Track daily, weekly or monthly.
Put positive reinforcement in place to encourage this behaviour.
Don’t forget to reward those people that are putting the quality management or performance into place.
Just training to learn technical skills is not the answer.
If people will not adopt the correct behaviour you will not get motivation and have success.
There is always a danger for any new initiative that the implementation of the systems, polices and documentation become of primary concern rather than the results it should be generate.
If there is no improvement within about 3 months it probably isn’t working.
Also, bear in mind that improvement is relative.
You must improve at a greater rate than your competition if you are to truly succeed.